# Dividing Polynomials - Definition, Synthetic Division, Long Division, and Examples

Polynomials are arithmetical expressions which includes one or more terms, all of which has a variable raised to a power. Dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra which includes finding the remainder and quotient as soon as one polynomial is divided by another. In this article, we will examine the various methods of dividing polynomials, consisting of synthetic division and long division, and provide instances of how to apply them.

We will also discuss the significance of dividing polynomials and its applications in multiple fields of math.

## Significance of Dividing Polynomials

Dividing polynomials is an important function in algebra which has multiple utilizations in many fields of math, involving calculus, number theory, and abstract algebra. It is used to solve a broad range of problems, including finding the roots of polynomial equations, working out limits of functions, and working out differential equations.

In calculus, dividing polynomials is used to find the derivative of a function, that is the rate of change of the function at any point. The quotient rule of differentiation consists of dividing two polynomials, that is applied to figure out the derivative of a function that is the quotient of two polynomials.

In number theory, dividing polynomials is utilized to learn the characteristics of prime numbers and to factorize large values into their prime factors. It is further applied to learn algebraic structures for example fields and rings, which are fundamental ideas in abstract algebra.

In abstract algebra, dividing polynomials is used to determine polynomial rings, which are algebraic structures that generalize the arithmetic of polynomials. Polynomial rings are utilized in multiple fields of mathematics, involving algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory.

## Synthetic Division

Synthetic division is an approach of dividing polynomials that is utilized to divide a polynomial with a linear factor of the form (x - c), where c is a constant. The method is based on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, subsequently the division of f(x) by (x - c) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-1 and a remainder of f(c).

The synthetic division algorithm includes writing the coefficients of the polynomial in a row, utilizing the constant as the divisor, and performing a chain of calculations to work out the quotient and remainder. The result is a simplified structure of the polynomial which is easier to work with.

## Long Division

Long division is an approach of dividing polynomials which is used to divide a polynomial by any other polynomial. The technique is based on the reality that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, and g(x) is a polynomial of degree m, where m ≤ n, subsequently the division of f(x) by g(x) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-m and a remainder of degree m-1 or less.

The long division algorithm involves dividing the greatest degree term of the dividend by the highest degree term of the divisor, and subsequently multiplying the answer with the whole divisor. The result is subtracted from the dividend to reach the remainder. The procedure is recurring until the degree of the remainder is less compared to the degree of the divisor.

## Examples of Dividing Polynomials

Here are a number of examples of dividing polynomial expressions:

### Example 1: Synthetic Division

Let's assume we need to divide the polynomial f(x) = 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 5x + 2 with the linear factor (x - 1). We could apply synthetic division to simplify the expression:

1 | 3 4 -5 2 | 3 7 2 |---------- 3 7 2 4

The outcome of the synthetic division is the quotient polynomial 3x^2 + 7x + 2 and the remainder 4. Thus, we can state f(x) as:

f(x) = (x - 1)(3x^2 + 7x + 2) + 4

### Example 2: Long Division

Example 2: Long Division

Let's assume we want to divide the polynomial f(x) = 6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 with the polynomial g(x) = x^2 - 2x + 1. We can apply long division to streamline the expression:

First, we divide the largest degree term of the dividend with the largest degree term of the divisor to attain:

6x^2

Next, we multiply the whole divisor with the quotient term, 6x^2, to attain:

6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2

We subtract this from the dividend to get the new dividend:

6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 - (6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2)

that simplifies to:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3

We repeat the procedure, dividing the highest degree term of the new dividend, 7x^3, with the largest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to get:

7x

Subsequently, we multiply the entire divisor by the quotient term, 7x, to get:

7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x

We subtract this from the new dividend to achieve the new dividend:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3 - (7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x)

which simplifies to:

10x^2 + 2x + 3

We recur the procedure again, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 10x^2, with the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to get:

10

Next, we multiply the entire divisor with the quotient term, 10, to obtain:

10x^2 - 20x + 10

We subtract this of the new dividend to obtain the remainder:

10x^2 + 2x + 3 - (10x^2 - 20x + 10)

that streamlines to:

13x - 10

Therefore, the outcome of the long division is the quotient polynomial 6x^2 - 7x + 9 and the remainder 13x - 10. We can state f(x) as:

f(x) = (x^2 - 2x + 1)(6x^2 - 7x + 9) + (13x - 10)

## Conclusion

Ultimately, dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra which has multiple utilized in multiple domains of math. Getting a grasp of the different techniques of dividing polynomials, for example long division and synthetic division, can guide them in solving complex challenges efficiently. Whether you're a learner struggling to understand algebra or a professional operating in a domain that includes polynomial arithmetic, mastering the concept of dividing polynomials is important.

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